periodic meetings and symposia, PICT provides a forum for debate among
international practitioners, scholars, and policy-makers, including
representatives of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental
organizations, to help transpose conclusions reached through the project's
research findings into operational policies.
of and Access to International Courts and Dispute Settlement Bodies
(London, February 1997)
The meeting was organized jointly by the Programme on International
Law and Sustainable Development of the Foundation for International
Environmental Law and Development (FIELD), and the Center on International
Cooperation, New York University. It was attended by over 30 international
law practitioners and scholars and by high-level representatives of
a dozen international courts and dispute settlement bodies. This was
the first time that senior officers of so many of the existing international
courts and bodies had met together. The meeting laid the foundations
The Proliferation of International Courts and Tribunals: Piecing
Together the Puzzle
(New York, October 1998)
The symposium was organized by PICT, jointly with the New York University
Journal of International Law and Politics. It was attended by 40 international
legal scholars and practitioners, who, during two days, debated the
problems for international justice associated with the growing number
and increasing use of international adjudicative, monitoring and fact-finding
bodies, including problems of variation and contradiction amongst normative
standards and in institutional practices, and related questions as to
whether there is or should be a unified system of international law.
The papers presented at the conference were published in a special Issue
of the NYU JILP, Vol. 31, No. 4 with “The Proliferation of International
Tribunals: Piecing together the Puzzle (JILP Volume 31, Number 4)”.
• The agenda
• NYU JILP, Vol. 31, No.
The Prospects for International Adjudication: A Roundtable Discussion
on Legal and Policy Issues Arising from the Emerging “Market”
in International Courts and Tribunals
(London, July 2000)
This event was organized in collaboration with Herbert Smith and Matrix
Chambers in conjunction with the International Law Association (ILA)
2000 conference in London. The aim of the session was to consider current
issues and challenges posed by the recent increase in international
courts and tribunals and their caseload. The meeting gave rise to the
establishment of an ILA Study Group on International Courts and Tribunals,
chaired by Philippe Sands, PICT Co-Director, and Campbell MacLachlan,
Secretary of the British Branch of the ILA.
International Organizations and International Dispute Settlement:
Trends and Prospects
(Geneva, February 2001)
This major conference was held at the World Trade Organization headquarters
in Geneva, and co-sponsored by the Law Faculty of the University of
Geneva, with support from the Graduate Institute of International Studies,
Geneva. The conference was attended by over 150 participants (diplomats,
officers of the two dozens of international organizations, policy-makers
and scholars). The conference explored all aspects of the participation
of international organizations in international judicial proceedings,
including contentious cases, requests for advisory opinions and submission
of “friends of the court” (amicus curiae) briefs. The papers
presented at the conference were collected in an edited volume: Boisson
de Chazournes, L./Romano, C./MacKenzie, R., International Organizations
and International Dispute Settlement: Trends and Prospects, Ardsley
on Hudson, Transnational Publishers, 2002, 283 pp. (ISBN 1-57105-273-9).
PICT distributed 150 free copies of the book to libraries and institutions
in developing countries and economies in transition.
• The agenda
• Table of Contents
• Book order
Women and Public International Litigation
(London, July 2001)
This roundtable discussion on the participation of women in litigation
before international courts and tribunals was attended by 30 women sitting
on the bench of international judicial bodies and national high courts.
The meeting took place at Matrix Chambers in London; Cherie Booth Q.C.
• The background paper
Women and Public International Litigation (cont.)
(New York, September 2002)
This meeting was a follow-up of the one held in London in July 2001.
On September 9, 2002 PICT held a panel discussion at NYU, again chaired
by Cherie Booth Q.C., to address the current under-representation of
women in international litigation both as judges and as counsel. The
discussion was scheduled to coincide with the first meeting of States
parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, to
draw attention to the importance of ensuring the equal representation
of women candidates for election as judges to the International Criminal
• Background papers
• The report
• Opening Remarks
Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals
(Amsterdam, January 2002).
This two-day conference was organized by PICT, the Amsterdam Center
for International Law (ACIL), and No Peace Without Justice. Internationalized
courts are composed of both national and non-national judges, and are
able to apply national as well as international law. In recent years
several such tribunals have been established in former conflict zones
to provide legal redress for serious criminal offences committed there.
This is a relatively new phenomenon in international law, which PICT
and its co-organizers believed to be deserving of serious analysis.
During the first day, panels of judges and legal experts from the four
main internationalized tribunals (Kosovo, East Timor, Sierra Leone and
Cambodia) discussed their establishment, progress and problems encountered
to date. The second day introduced three cross cutting themes: the establishment
of internationalized tribunals alongside national courts, including
issues raised by distribution of funding and composition of the bench;
applicable substantive and procedural law; and the implications of the
establishment of an International Criminal Court.
The conference was attended by more than 100 practitioners (judges,
staff of courts, NGOs) and scholars.
• The report
• Nollkaemper, A./Romano, C./Kleffner, J. (eds.), Internationalized
Criminal Courts and Tribunals, (forthcoming).
The International Judge: Independence and Accountability
(Florence, June 2002)
This two-day colloquium was co-organized by PICT, the Institute of Judicial
Administration of New York University, and the International Law Association.
The aim was to discuss the emergence of a new major public figure, i.e.,
the international judge, and several still unresolved ethical, legal
and political issues. To be credible, international justice must be
administered by independent and accountable judges. At a time when media
are closely scrutinizing the work of international judicial bodies,
the issue of the transparency of international judges is paramount.
The colloquium addressed, inter alia, the:
• relation between national/situational variations in judicial
roles and judicial independence;
• issue of judicial appointment, reappointment and promotion processes
• correlates of greater or lesser independence; judicial corruption;
• relationships between judicial activism, judicial impunity,
judicial abuse, and judicial independence;
• justifications for judicial independence and for non-independence;
• formal and informal systems of judicial self-regulation and
question of whether human rights mechanisms are useful to judiciary
• role of transnational standards, transnational judicial links,
etc; and question of whether any absolute standards for judicial independence
are possible globally.
The colloquium was attended by 40 participants including several international
judges (from ICJ, ITLOS, ICTR, ICTY, WTO, ECJ, ECHR), practitioners
• The agenda
The conference papers have been published in: Law and Practice of International
Courts and Tribunals, Vol. 2, 2003.
Fair Representation: The ICC Elections And Women
(New York, January 2003)
This event took place in New York during two one-afternoon sessions
at the eve of the first election of the judges of the International
Criminal Court. It was co-organized by PICT and the WomenÁs Caucus for
Gender Justice and the Project on International Courts and Tribunals.
The panel discussion debated the need to present women as candidates
for the election of the bench of the International Criminal Court. The
panelists addressed the establishment of the International Criminal
Court, challenges and advances made in the Rome Statute, as well as
under-representation of women judges before international courts and
• The agenda
remarks by Angela E.V. King, Assistant Secretary-General and Special
Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women
Civil Society, Internation Tribunals and Compliance Bodies,
Milano (October 2003)
conference took place at the University of Milano on October 24-25,
2003 and was organized by the Università degli Studi di Milano,
Brescia e Verona, with the support of the Italian Ministry for Universities
and Research (MIUR), in cooperation with PICT, and the Centro Studi
sulla Giustizia, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Università
degli Studi di Milano.
and the Delivery of International Justice, Florence
one-day colloquium at the European University Institute, Florence, Oct.
27, 2003, was a follow-up to the meeting held in New York (January 2003)
and was organized by the European University Institute and PICT