The following synoptic chart portrays the present and potential make-up of the international judiciary. A full explanation of the classification criteria can be found here. Like any chart, this one is most likely incomplete. It is the result of an ongoing research effort carried out within PICT, and should be considered at best a partial representation of what exists (or has existed). Certain groupings have merely illustrative function, since the enormous number of bodies that have been created in the past could not properly fit into the scheme. Certain bodies may change status in the near future, and new institutions and mechanisms may be created. Accordingly, we invite your comments and suggestions, which can be sent to cr28@acf2.nyu.edu.


General Jurisdiction • International Court of Justice (1946 ‚ ...)
• Central American Court of Justice "Corte Centroamericana de Justicia" (1994 ‚ ...)

• Central American Court of Justice „Corte de Justicia Centroamericanaľ (1908-1918)
• Permanent Court of International Justice (1919-1945)

• International Islamic Court of Justice / Arab Court of Justice
• Inter-American Court of International Justice
Law of the Sea • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (1996 ‚ ...)
International Criminal Law/Humanitarian Law • International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (1993 ‚ ...)
• International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (1995 ‚ ...)

• International Criminal Tribunal for Cambodia
• African Slave Trade Mixed Tribunals (1819-1866 circa)
• International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (1945-1946)
•ÝInternational Military Tribunal for the Far East (1946-1948)

• International Prize Court (1907)
International Criminal Court (1998)
Environment • International Court for the Environment
Trade, Commerce and Investments • World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Understanding (1995 ‚ ...) (The DSU created the WTO Dispute Settlement Body, an ad hoc organ, and the Appellate Body, a permanent organ. Strictly speaking only the latter belongs here, while the former should be listed in the section "Permanent Arbitral Tribunals / Conciliation Commissions")
• International Loans Tribunal
Human Rights • European Court of Human Rights (1959-1998 / 1998 ‚ ...)
• Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1979 ‚ ...)

• African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights (1998)
International Human Rights Court
Regional Economic Integration Agreements Europe
• Court of Justice of the European Communities (1952 ‚ ...)
• Court of First Instance of the European Communities (1988 ‚ ...)
• EFTA Court (1994 ‚ ...)
• Benelux Economic Union Court of Justice (1974 ‚ ...) (The Benelux College of Arbitrators has been listed in the section "Permanent Arbitral Tribunals / Conciliation Commissions ")
• European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (OSCE) (1957)
• European Tribunal on State Immunity (Council of Europe) (1972)
• Western European Union Tribunal (1957)

Africa
• Court of Justice of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (1998 ‚ ...)
• Common Court of Justice and Arbitration of the Organization for the Harmonization of Corporate Law in Africa (1997 ‚ ...)
• East African Community Court of Appeal (1967-1977)
• East African Community Common Market Tribunal (1967-1977)

• Court of Justice of the Economic Community of Central African States (1983) •ÝCourt of Justice of the African Economic Community (1991)
• Southern Africa Development Community Tribunal (1992)
• Economic Community of West African States Tribunal (1975)

Middle East / Arab Countries

• Court of Justice of the Arab Maghreb Union (1989 ‚ ...)
• Judicial Board of OAPEC (1980 ‚ ...)

Latin America

• Court of Justice of the Andean Community (1984 ‚ ...)

• ÝMERCOSUR Court of Justice



International Administrative Tribunals • United Nations Administrative Tribunal (1949 ‚ ...)
• International Labour Organization Administrative Tribunal (1946 ‚ ...)
• World Bank Administrative Tribunal (1980 ‚ ...)
• Inter-American Development Bank Administrative Tribunal (1981 ‚ ...)
• Administrative Tribunal of the Organization of American States (1976 ‚ ...)
• Appeal Board of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1950 ‚ ...)
• Council of Europe Appeals Board (1965 ‚ ...)
• Appeals Board of the NATO (1965 ‚ ...)
• Appeals Board of the European Space Agency (1975 ‚ ...)
• Appeals Board of the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (1972 ‚ ...)
• Appeals Board of the Western European Union (1956 ‚ ...)

• League of Nations Administra- tive Tribunal (1927-1945)
• Appeals Board of the European Space Research Organization (1966-1974)
• Appeals Board of the European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Org. (1966-1974)
Inspection Panels • World Bank Inspection Panel (1994 ‚ ...)
• Inter-American Development Bank Independent Investigation Mechanism (1995 ‚ ...)
• Asian Development Bank Inspection Policy (1995 ‚ ...)
Human Rights Bodies • United Nations Commission on Human Rights (1946 ‚ ...)
• International Civil and Political Rights Committee (1976 ‚ ...)
• Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( 1987 ‚ ...)
• Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (1969 ‚ ...)
• Committee against Torture (1987 ‚ ...)
• Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981 ‚ ...)
• Committee on the Rights of the Child (1990 ‚ ...)
• African Commission on Human and PeopleĽs Rights (1987 ‚ ...)
• Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (1979 ‚ ...)
• Committee of Independent Experts under the European Social Charter (1998 ‚ ...)
• ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (1926 ‚ ...)
• ILO Conference Committee on the Application of Conventions 1926 ‚ ...)
• ILO Commission of Inquiry (1919 ‚ ...)
• ILO Governing Body Committee on Freedom of Association (1950 ‚ ...)

• European Commission on Human Rights (1959-1998)
Non-Compliance Bodies • Implementation Committee under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1990 ‚ ...)
• Climate Change Convention (1992)
• Desertification Convention (1994)
• Oslo Protocol to the 1979 ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (1994)

• Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
• Protocol to the ECE LRTAP concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs IM)
• Protocol to the 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
• London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade
Permanent Arbitral Tribunals / Conciliation Commissions • Permanent Court of Arbitration (1899 ‚ ...)
• OSCE Court on Conciliation and Arbitration (1994 ‚ ...)
• OAU Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration (1964 ‚ ...)
• International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (1966 ‚ ...)NAFTA Dispute Settlement Panels (1994 ‚ ...)
• North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation (1993 ‚ ...)
• International Joint Commission (1909 ‚ ...)
Upper Silesia Arbitral Tribunal (1922-1937)
• Arbitral College of the Benelux Economic Union (1958)
• Arbitration Tribunal of the Central American Common Market (1960)
• Court of Arbitration of the French Community (1959)
International Claims and Compensation Bodies Multilateral / Bilateral
• UN Tribunal for Libya (1951-1955) • UN Tribunal for Eritrea (1951-1954)
Bilateral
• Iran-USA Claims Tribunal (1980 ‚ ...)
Multilateral
• United Nations Compensation Commission (1991 ‚ ...)
(plus more than 80 mixed arbitral tribunals and claims commissions which existed in the past, such as the 1868 American-Mexican Claims Commissions or the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals created under the Treaties of Peace of 1919-20)

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